Teen pop singer Lorde has established a fan club in collaboration with ArtistArena.com to enable fans to exclusively purchase pre-sale tickets for her North American tour before they hit the primary market. The move marks an attempt to discourage scalpers from buying up tickets in bulk for resale on the secondary market. The limited availability of secondary tickets has elevated their price for Lorde's upcoming shows, with TiqIQ reporting the average price is currently 20.56 percent higher than her last North American tour. However, the creation of fan clubs to cut out scalpers can have mixed results. For example, a similar move by British singer Ed Sheeran has led to only 26 tickets for an upcoming show becoming available on the secondary market, but the ticket prices have nearly tripled, with an average per ticket cost of $621. Other anti-scalping measures include Bruce Springsteen's push for venues to incorporate paperless ticketing, which reduced scalping by at least 75 percent on his 2013 Wrecking Ball tour, although paperless tickets constitute less than 1 percent of total ticket sales.